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what is difference between include action and include directive in jsp?

include directive include action
  1. In case of include directive contents are included at the translation time.
  2. If the content of included file is changed than changes will not reflect.
  3. Not use RequestDispatcher to include the content.
  4. Can’t pass parameters.
  5. Syntax: <%@ include file=”URL of another resource” %>
  1. In case of jsp:include contents are included at the runtime.
  2. If the content of included file is changed than changes will reflect.
  3. The jsp:include action include the contents using RequestDispatcher.
  4. Can pass parameters using jsp:param action tag.
  5. Syntax: <jsp:include page=”URL of another resource” />

See more at: jsp:include action tag

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