Tissue culture is the process of using small pieces of plant tissue that are cultured in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions. By using the appropriate growing conditions for each explant type, plants can be induced to rapidly produce new shoots, and with the addition of suitable hormones fresh roots. These plantlets may also be divided, usually at the shooting stage, in order to produce large numbers of new plantlets. These new plants can then be placed in soil and grown in a normal manner.
When it comes to biological, tissue culture refers to a method in which fragments of a tissue plant or animal tissue are introduced into a new, artificial environment, where they continue to grow. While fragments of tissue are used, it is essential to note that entire organs are also used for tissue culture purposes. Here, such growth media as broth and agar are used to help the process. This tissue culture is been classified into two which are seed culture, this Seed culture is primarily used for plants such as orchids. For this technique, explants which are tissue from the plant are obtained from an in-vitro derived plant and introduced into an artificial surrounding, where they get to proliferate. In the act a plant material is used directly for this process, then it has to be sterilized to protect tissue damage and ensure optimum regeneration. The second one is embryo culture, this is a type of tissue culture that involves the isolation of an embryo from a given organism for in vitro growth. Some time this embryo culture may involve the use of a mature of the immature embryo. This a process In which mature embryos for culture are significantly received from ripe seeds, embryo rescue or immature embryo involves the use of immature embryos from unripe or hybrid seeds that failed to germinate. In doing this, the embryo is ultimately able to produce a viable plant. There are numerous which are used for tissue culture given that there are different types of tissues that require specific conditions for the culture process yield desired results. In both plant and animal tissue are used for tissue culture purposes for a wide range of purposes. For instance, animal tissue culture may serve such purposes as the preservation of an organ/tissue, studying the tutors or given tissues or for diagnosis purposes. Tissue culture is therefore of great significance in the study of biology.