Bt-crop is one the type of genetically modified organism, named GMO. And is a plant or animal that has been genetically modified through the addition of a small number of genetic material from other organisms through molecular methods. Presently, the Genetically Modify Organisms on the market today have been given genetic traits to offer protection from pests, tolerance to pesticides, or improve its quality.
To change a plant into a GMO plant, the gene which produces a genetic trait of interest is recognized and separated from the rest of the genetic material from a donor organism. Some organisms possess thousands of genes, a gene represents only a bit fraction of the total genetic makeup of an organism.
A donor organism can be a bacterium, fungus or even another plant. In the case of Bacillus thuringiensis crop, the donor organism is naturally occurring Bacillus thuringiensis, a soil bacterium, and the gene of interest gives a protein which kills Lepidoptera larvae, in particular. This protein is referred to as the Bt delta-endotoxin. Growers usually use Bt corn or BT crop as an alternative to spraying insecticides for control of European and southwestern corn borer.
Bacillus thuringiensis has a long agricultural history for a very long time or dating back nearly one hundred years. Even within the recent age of genetic engineering, Bacillus thuringiensis has been one of the longest-running applications and successes of foods in the United States. The genetically Modified targeted mechanism of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin makes it an excellent pesticide since it has been proved to be safe for human consumption, reduces the use of insecticide application, improves crop yield, and reduces the number of management crops require. The engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal traits into crops like corn, cotton, and potatoes demonstrates the potential advantages and possibilities which advances in biotechnology are now providing. Perhaps most importantly, the story of Bt spotlights the thorough regulatory oversight which governs the development and application of these genetically modified foods, ensuring their safety and sensible use.
Bt crop is an addition to GM product arsenal against plant pests. With an increasing population and decreasing arable land, it is essential to exploit all options with as little doubt to produce more crops. When it is used side by side with proper agricultural practices, Bt insect resistance technology may bring many advantages to crops, farmers, and consumers alike.