In the discipline of biology budding is a type of asexual reproduction, in which new individuals are developed from the generative anatomical point of the parent organism. In some of the cases the buds can be produced from any point on the body but in some cases, the characteristic of budding is only possible on the specialized parts. Initially, there is a protuberance of the proliferation of cytoplasm or the cells, and eventually, bud is developed into an organism thus duplicating the parent. The new individuals can be separated and they can exist independently. The buds may not be separated and they may remain attached and forms the colonies, or the aggregates.
In this type of asexual reproduction, the parent organism is divided into two unequal parts. Budding is the feature of both unicellular and multicellular organisms. This process begins with the development of the small bud or outgrowth on the side of a parent organism. After the development of outgrowth, the bud is broken off as a completely new organism. The new organisms which are produced by the budding, have identical DNA. Regenerative cells are used by some organisms such as hydra for reproduction by the budding process. In the hydra due to the repeated cell divisions, bud is developed as an outgrowth at a specific site. Later on, this bud is developed into the tiny individuals and when they are fully matured, they get detached from the parent body and start living as independent individuals.
Bud may develop internally known as endodyogeny and this phenomenon is favored by a parasite such as Toxoplasma gondii. Generally, for the internal budding, an unusual process is involved which leads to the production of two daughter cells inside the mother cell. After that, before their separation, it is consumed by the offspring. Budding helps for the survival of species and the genetic influences are directly passed onto the next generation. Typically, the organism which is produced by the budding has a much lower life duration.
Budding is an important characteristic of the unicellular organisms and such as yeast, protozoans, and certain bacteria. However, a number of the metazoan animals are regularly reproduced by the budding such as certain cnidarian species. The term budding is also used in the horticulture which is an important method to propagate the plants. The bud of the plant which is to be propagated is grafted on the stem of another plant.